Adverbial participle in grammatical dictionary

Adverbial participle

Adverbial participle is one of the main parts of speech in Russian language. Sometimes it is considered as grammatical form of a verb. But in grammatical dictionary the verb and adverbial participles are devided into two word entries:

деепричастие глагол

Adverbial participle in Russian language usually describes the co-action for the main verb in a sentence.

Adverbial participle derivation

Adverbial participles are derived from verbs. Perfect and imperfect verbs produce perfect and imperfect participles correspondingly:

делать - делая

сделать - сделав

Imperfect adverbial participles implicitly describes the present tense actions. Expceptions are rare and not in common use. For example, the verb 'играть' produces the present tense participle 'играя', as well as archaic past tense variant 'игравши'.

Perfect adverbial participles implicitely describe the action that took place in past, e.g. 'поиграв'.

The suffix of participle in most cases follows the simple rule. Imperfect adverbial participles end with -я or -ясь for reflexive verbs. Perfect adverbial participles end with -в, -вши or -вшись for reflexive verbs.

Let us explore the correlation between verb aspects and adverbial participle suffixes. SQL dictionary provides the sufficient mean for the exploration. The following tables contain the related data.

SG_CLASS stores the list of part of speech declarations. ДЕЕПРИЧАСТИЕ is a Russian name of adverbial participle:

SELECT id, name
 FROM  SG_CLASS
 ORDER BY id
idname
...
13ИНФИНИТИВ
14ГЛАГОЛ
15ДЕЕПРИЧАСТИЕ
16ПРЕДЛОГ
17БЕЗЛИЧ_ГЛАГОЛ
...

SG_ENTRY contains the word entry information. Adverbial participles can be selected by applying the condition on id_class field:

SELECT E.id, E.name
 FROM  SG_CLASS C, SG_ENTRY E
 WHERE C.name='ДЕЕПРИЧАСТИЕ' AND E.id_class=C.id
idname
...
1073850608искривляя
1073850610искривляясь
1073850612шатаясь
1073850614белея
1073850616сверкая
1073850618оттирая
1073850620ворочаясь
...

SG_ENTRY_COORD table holds the grammatical attributes of the entry. Each SG_ENTRY record can relate several SG_ENTRY_COORD records. In case of adverbial participle at least one SG_ENTRY_COORD record exists. Additional SG_ENTRY_COORD records can hold optional transitivity and modality information.

SG_COORD is a list of grammatical attributes names and IDs. SG_STATE contains the reference of grammatical attribute values. The following query yields the list of aspects:

SELECT S.id, S.name
 FROM  SG_COORD C, SG_STATE S
 WHERE C.name='ВИД' AND S.id_coord=C.id
idname
0СОВЕРШ
1НЕСОВЕРШ

Now grab those tables together in a complex query like this:

SELECT E.name, AsS.name
 FROM  SG_CLASS C, SG_ENTRY E, SG_ENTRY_COORD EC, SG_COORD ASP, SG_STATE AsS
 WHERE C.name='ДЕЕПРИЧАСТИЕ' AND
       E.id_class=C.id AND E.name IN ('делая','сделав','делаясь','видя', 'увидев') AND
       ASP.name='ВИД' AND AsS.id_coord=ASP.id AND
       EC.id_entry=E.id AND EC.icoord=ASP.id AND AsS.id=EC.istate

The result set shows the aspect information for several adverbial participles:

видяНЕСОВЕРШ
делаяНЕСОВЕРШ
делаясьНЕСОВЕРШ
сделавСОВЕРШ
увидевСОВЕРШ

The last modification of that query adds the extraction of word suffix and calculation the statistics for the whole lexicon:

SELECT AsS.name AS 'aspect', Substr(E.name,Char_Length(E.name), 1 ) AS 'last letter', COUNT(*) AS 'number of words', Max(E.name) AS 'sample'
 FROM  SG_CLASS C, SG_ENTRY E, SG_ENTRY_COORD EC, SG_COORD ASP, SG_STATE AsS
 WHERE C.name='ДЕЕПРИЧАСТИЕ' AND
       E.id_class=C.id AND E.flags=0 AND
       ASP.name='ВИД' AND AsS.id_coord=ASP.id AND
       EC.id_entry=E.id AND EC.icoord=ASP.id AND AsS.id=EC.istate
 GROUP BY AsS.name, Substr(E.name,Char_Length(E.name), 1 )
 ORDER BY AsS.name, COUNT(*) desc
aspectlast letternumber of wordsfrequencysample
НЕСОВЕРШя43058451839язвя
НЕСОВЕРШь19522352783ярясь
НЕСОВЕРШа132753784щекоча
НЕСОВЕРШи2191866хлебавши
НЕСОВЕРШв175669читав
СОВЕРШв39814249479явив
СОВЕРШь21251511367явившись
СОВЕРШи35818218хлебнувши
СОВЕРШя66300097учтя
СОВЕРШа27551сложа
СОВЕРШу11дав деру

Additional information

Деепричастия

SQL Dictionary SDK

Grammatical Dictionary SDK

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changed 05-Feb-12